Eye Diseases in Golden Retrievers
Entropion is an inherited condition of the eyelid where the border of the eyelid turns in and hair normally on the outside of the lid rubs on the surface of the eye (cornea). It usually affects the lower eyelid. Entropion is most common in dogs less than one year of age and causes irritation to the eye and in severe cases ulceration of the cornea. Surgery is required.
Distichia (extra eyelashes) grow from glands in the eyelid edge on to the cornea. Depending on a number of factors, extra eyelashes may or may not cause irritation to the eyes. If there is irritation, surgery is indicated.
Persistent Pupillary Membranes (PPMs)
Many Goldens are affected by the mildest form of PPMs. These are small strands of iris tissue that run across the surface of the iris and they do not cause clinical signs.
Imperforate Tear Punctum
In some Goldens the lower tear duct opening (punctum) in the eyelid does not form. Affected dogs present with a watery eye as a pup. A new tear duct can be surgically created.
A cataract is any opacity in the lens. There are many causes of cataracts, some of these are inherited. If the cataracts are present in both eyes and they mature the dog may become blind. Surgery is available in some cases.
The posterior polar subcapsular (PPS) is better known as the star cataract. It is usually in both eyes and becomes apparent from 6 to 18 months of age. Some dogs develop this problem as late as seven years of age. This cataract may be slowly progressive, but it rarely interferes with vision.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
The retina is the light sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. It is responsible for registering visual stimuli and transmitting them through the optic nerve of the brain. In retinal atrophy, this layer of tissue gradually degenerates. Affected dogs have night blindness, progressing to day blindness and in the later stages cataracts may develop.
Heart Disease in Golden Retrievers
Golden Retrievers can suffer from inherited heart disease. The breed’s primary heart problem is Subarterial Aortic Stenosis (SAS). This disease can be fatal from an early age. Again, breeders should be checking for the presence of disease in breeding stock. Certificates should be checked to ensure the dog is clear from any disease and they should hold a clearance AFTER the age of 12 months. A puppy clearance is not a clearance to verify suitability for breeding. (Heart certification is not compulsory for the registration of the litter).
This disease of dogs arises when abnormal tissue near the aortic valve obstructs the flow of blood out of the left ventricle. If severe enough it can eventually lead to CHF and ventricular arrhythmias.
Symptoms include exercise intolerance, rear limb weakness, syncope (passing out), cough, shortness of breath, and even death.
A heart murmur along with an arrhythmia is a clue to this disease.
Radiographs and electrocardiograms are of help in the more advanced cases. Echocardiograms are helpful in the moderate to severe cases.
Surgery and balloon catheter dilation are helpful but may be of limited value. Medical therapy is used to treat CHF.
Mildly affected dogs can have a good quality of life. If the problem is more severe the prognosis is not as good.